ARTERITIS VIRAL – Free download as Powerpoint Presentation . ppt), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease of equids caused by equine arteritis virus. (EAV), an RNA virus classified in the genus, Arterivirus, family. English Translation, Synonyms, Definitions and Usage Examples of Spanish Word ‘arteritis viral equina’.
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Equine viral arteritis in perspective in relation to Int trade. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. EAVnegative mares should mate only with semen from EAV-seronegative stallions, but not with semen from carriers that could be infected. The virus which causes EVA was first isolated voralbut the disease has afflicted equine animals worldwide for centuries.
Proceedings of the one-hundred tenth annual meeting of the United States animal health association. Equine Respiratory Diseases, P.
J Reprod Fertility Suppl ; There are a number of routes of transmission of the virus. These changes persist for about 16 weeks, at which time the horse returns to its normal seminal parameters Neu et al. When a mare, a gelding or a sexually immature colt catches the disease, the animal excretes the virus through respiratory airways and develops a strong immunity to re-infection Fukunaga et al.
arteritis viral equina – English Translation – Word Magic Spanish-English Dictionary
In the persistently infected stallion, EAV is located in the accessory sexual glands and establishment and persistence of the carrier state is testosteronedependent Little et al. Virus isolates can be obtained from nasopharyngeal swabs or washes, conjunctival swabs, samples of ejaculates, essentially the sperm-rich fraction, placentas, fetal fluids and tissues of aborted fetuses, such as lung, spleen and lymph nodes, and through blood samples with EDTAas anticoagulant.
Bleeding was performed on all the horses in order to detect possible cases of seroconversion. The case of Argentine has been largely discussed and documented in the scientific and technical literature, firal it is the South American country with arterutis largest number of reported cases. This means that infection can be acquired via European strains imported arterutis the Arterits from South America, or via strains dquina strong outbreaksinthenorthernhemisphere.
Additionally, the virus infects macrophages, which in conjunction with vrial cell damage leads to increased release of proinflammatory cytokines that are heavily involved in the pathogenesis of “arteritis” Moore et al. Proceedings of the 5th Conf Equine Infec Dis; There also exists some variability between the strains based on their pathogenicity, some strains being capable of causing a wide range of clinical symptoms, collectively referred to as EVA in susceptible horses, whereas others produce only a slight fever Balasuriya et al.
The natural reservoir of EAV infection is the carrier stallion, which ensures the permanence of the ateritis in equine populations. In breeders arteritid sites dedicated to reproduction, it is necessary to perform bleeding and serological assays of all horses prior to mating; viral isolation should also be attempted on imported semen before use.
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Serological surveys were conducted in all the horses, two serial diagnostic tests with an interval of 14 days, to verify the absence of viral activity. However “illegal” entry of equines across borders such as the Venezuelan border, for events that group populations such as fairs or for use as transport, can representa strong riskofdiseaseintroductioninto the country. It is very important to maintain strict hygiene and disinfection of instruments and equipment to minimize the risk of transmission of the virus.
The natural reservoir of EAV infection is the carrier stallion, which ensures the permanence of the infection in equine populations. J Eq Vet Sci ; 8: Prevalence of antibodies to influenza virus, viral arteritis and herpesvirus in horses of the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.
Bull Equine Res Instit ; Since EAV-negative and properly immunized stallions cannot be carriers, every negative foal under 9 months of age should be vaccinated. At times a live but congenitally infected and sick foal is born Vaala et al. Arch Virol ; EVA has cause significant economic loses; in the last years a strong multi-state outbreak reaches 18 states. Vasculitis is characterized by fibrinoid necrosis of small arteries with extravasation of red blood cells and proteinaceous material.
Another symptom of infection in pregnant mares is abortion, that is not preceded by any characteristic or premonitory sign and may occur either at the end of the acute phase of illness or when the recovery phase begins Coignoul and Cheville, ; Arterritis et al.
Multi-state occurrence of EVA. Out of the samples included in this study, A consolidated analysis of the results arterittis between and showed that of samples tested, were positive 4.
The virus can also be spread by the venereal route, including by artificial insemination. These changes persist for about 16 weeks, at which time the horse returns to its normal seminal parameters Neu et al.
Frequency of equine viral arteritis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In parallel with arterits approval of the import of horses from EVA-infected countries, Argentina initiated serological monitoring of imported horses and semen as part of the Equkna Epidemiological Surveillance Program; this revealed one positive sample of semen imported in Apriland led to the destruction of the entire lot of semen, and to arteeritis intervention of the two farms involved in the import and use of the semen.
Transmission EVA is primarily a respiratory disease, transmitted through inhalation of viral particles between horses during the acute stage of infection mainly during transport of the animals for trade, exhibition or racing.
When a mare, a gelding or a sexually immature colt catches the disease, the animal excretes the virus through respiratory airways and develops a zrteritis immunity to re-infection Fukunaga et al. Changes in semen quality following experimental equine arteritis virus infection in the stallion. This outbreak, began with an outbreak of abortions equian early June in a Quarter Horse ranch in the state of New Mexico where one of four stallions developed fever, depression, preputial and forehead limb edemas, with subsequent loss of fertility and virus isolation from semen.
Among the equinaa health requirements for permanent entrance of horses into Colombia, ICA requires that stallions be negative after two viral neutralization tests carried out during the 28 days prior to shipment and a 14 day interval between them; for seropositive stallions, the requirement is that they have mated two seronegative mares which remained negative after two neutralization tests, carried out first, the day of mating and second 28 days later.
Equine viral arteritis
In paired samples carried out in all of the horses existing in the two farms, no infection was found,andthisdeterminedtheriseofhealthactivities and restrictive measures in the movement of horses vidal DelaSota et al.
For Latin American countries there arenotanofficialreportofprevalence due to there is only few studies and EAV serologic surveyofhorse’spopulationsdoesnotexist.
It is necessary to mention that due to EVA is an exotic disease, vaccinations are not recommended in our country yet. Genetic typing of equine arteritis virus isolates from Argentina.
Equine viral arteritis – Wikipedia
Cornell Vet ; Subsequently, a second stallion developed pyrexia, but maintained adequate fertility. Am Assoc Equine Pract Report a;7. The carrier state has been identified only in the stallion, not in mares, geldings or sexually immature foals Timoney et al.